Enhancing Lithium Stripping Efficiency in Anode-Free Solid-State Batteries

Anode-free all-solid-state lithium metal batteries (ASLMBs) promise high energy density and safety but suffer from a low initial Coulombic efficiency and rapid capacity decay, especially at high cathode loadings. Using operando techniques, we concluded these issues were related to interfacial contact loss during lithium stripping. To address this, we introduce a conductive carbon felt elastic layer that self-adjusts the pressure at the anode side, ensuring consistent lithium–solid electrolyte contact. This layer simultaneously provides electronic conduction and releases the plating pressure. Consequently, the first Coulombic efficiency dramatically increases from 58.4% to 83.7% along with a >10-fold improvement in cycling stability. Overall, this study reveals an approach for enhancing anode-free ASLMB performance and longevity by mitigating lithium stripping inefficiency through self-adjusting interfacial pressure enabled by a conductive elastic interlayer.

Nano Lett. 2023, 23, 20, 9392–9398